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By Michael Lewis

THE LEXICAL method develops present considering, synthesizing the easiest insights of past concept, corpus linguistics, discourse research, and smooth ways to grammar

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The lexical approach: The state of ELT and a way forward

THE LEXICAL technique develops present considering, synthesizing the simplest insights of past idea, corpus linguistics, discourse research, and glossy ways to grammar

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What they first made clear is the fact that washback is a much more complex phenomenon than we think, which is itself affected by several factors, other than the test itself, that have to be taken into consideration when we examine it. These could be traced within society, education or even the school itself. They suggested describing first what exactly washback is in terms of what goes on 18 in the classroom, before its nature is researched, since, as it is stressed: “Only once we are able to describe what actually happens, will we be in a position to explore what causes these effects” (1993: 117).

I asked all the questions in the interview protocol, and in some cases, where I thought I was getting interesting data from the subjects, I asked clarifying questions. Overall, the interviews lasted for about 30–35 minutes and they were conducted between September and October 2006 (Appendix 2, example of an interview transcript). 8 The process of the interview analysis According to Kvale and Brinkmann (2009), there are two main directions in interview analysis, connected to the research purpose: focusing on meaning and focusing on language.

Triangulation can substantially increase the credibility or trustworthiness of a research finding” (2008: 451). g. you might 34 choose to use interviews, questionnaires, and classroom observations to gather data” (Brown and Rodgers, 2002: 212). All in all, the data gathered only by questionnaires might lack flexibility or accuracy as well, as Tsagari (2006) states. Finally, to increase validity, location or space triangulation was implemented (visiting classrooms in different parts of the city and country) and data type (text, tape recordings etc) (Wall: 2005).

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