By Michael P. Bishop, Helgi Björnsson, Wilfried Haeberli, Johannes Oerlemans, John F. Shroder, Martyn Tranter, Vijay P. Singh, Pratap Singh, Umesh K. Haritashya
The earth’s cryosphere, consisting of snow, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, ice cabinets, sea ice, river and lake ice, and permafrost, includes approximately seventy five% of the earth’s clean water. It exists at just about all latitudes, from the tropics to the poles, and performs an essential function in controlling the worldwide weather approach. It additionally presents direct seen facts of the impression of weather swap, and, consequently, calls for right figuring out of its complicated dynamics. This encyclopedia often makes a speciality of a few of the points of snow, ice and glaciers, but additionally covers different cryospheric branches, and gives up to date details and easy ideas on proper themes. It comprises alphabetically prepared and professionally written, accomplished and authoritative educational articles by means of famous foreign specialists in person fields. The encyclopedia includes a large spectrum of issues, starting from the atmospheric methods accountable for snow formation; transformation of snow to ice and alterations of their houses; class of ice and glaciers and their all over the world distribution; glaciation and ice a while; glacier dynamics; glacier floor and subsurface features; geomorphic strategies and panorama formation; hydrology and sedimentary platforms; permafrost degradation; risks because of cryospheric adjustments; and developments of glacier retreat at the worldwide scale besides the impression of weather switch. This booklet can function a resource of reference on the undergraduate and graduate point and aid to higher comprehend snow, ice and glaciers. it's going to even be an quintessential software containing really good literature for geologists, geographers, climatologists, hydrologists, and water assets engineers; in addition to in case you are engaged within the perform of agricultural and civil engineering, earth sciences, environmental sciences and engineering, atmosphere administration, and different proper matters.
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Additional resources for Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers (Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series)
Ca Ian C. cn xl CONTRIBUTORS Zhang Yanwei Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography Chinese Academy of Sciences 40-3 South Beijing Road Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011 China Tandong Yao Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes (TEL) Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research Chinese Academy of Sciences No. O. cn Jacob C. dk Wusheng Yu Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes (TEL) Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research Chinese Academy of Sciences No. O.
217 articles in category C are mini-entries dealing with materials, fancy terms, or outdated concepts. All these categorical entries on different topics are compiled in an alphabetical order, with their length being related to their relative importance. March 2011 Vijay P. Singh Pratap Singh Umesh K. Haritashya (Editors-in-Chief) Acknowledgments This Encyclopedia is a result of the collective contributions of the authors who were gracious, generous and willing to write different articles. These authors, representing five continents, have synthesized the body of knowledge in their particular area, and therefore the quality of the Encyclopedia is a reflection of the quality of their efforts.
Ice-wedge is abundantly found along the Arctic coast and in many permafrost areas of the world. The formation and growing of ice wedges have been backed by the thermal contraction theory. In general, the melting of snow and its refreezing in thermal contraction cracks are accepted as the main reason for recent ice wedge formation. Due to thermal contraction, cracks open in winter and filled in with water in summer and form ice veins. The wedges which are still evolving and growing because of repeated but not necessarily annual winter cracking are defined as active ice wedges.