By Mohammad Hossein Keshavarz
Preface to the 1st .Edition
Teachers. linguists and psycholinguists have consistently been intere ted in
errors produced through second-language newcomers, both of their speech or
writing or either. in truth, inexperienced persons' blunders were the topic of
extensive research and heated controveL y for really a protracted time.
There were significant ways to the learn of learner ' errors .
namely Contrasti ve research and blunder Analysis.
The author's valuable purpose in scripting this booklet has been to
provide a textual content for the Contrasti\'c and mistake research direction now
widely taught on the uni versity point in Iran. The formerly used
material for this path did not conceal many points of errors Analy i
which are handled within the current publication. The e-book can also be meant to
provide practising lecturers with insights into the character and kinds of
errors, with which they need to deal of their day-by-day profes ional life.
The fabric during this publication relies at the author's lectures on
Contrastive and blunder research at significant universities in Tehran. It has
been labored out over a number of years and has confirmed to be satisfactory
and profitable. makes an attempt were made to give the material
systematically. it truly is strongly believed that this systematic presentation
wiiirnake the instructing and analyzing of the cloth tender and easy.
It is was hoping that this e-book, with all its shortcomings, wi II create a
positive angle in the direction of blunders, either at the a part of educators and
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Additional info for Contrastive Analysis & Error Analysis
3. The intonation patterns of direct and indirect questions are different. 4. When a direct question is transformed into an indirect question the sequence of tenses may or may not be observed in Persian, whereas in English the sequence of tenses is normally observed. It is interesting to note that although there is no subject-auxiliary order change in Persian indirect questions (hence no predictable interlingual errors) Persian-speaking learners of English usually commit errors such as the ones below when they attempt to produce English indirect questions.
These errors seem to be intralingual as they stem from the mutual interference of the target language structures and not from mother tongue interference. , the learners overgeneralize the target language rule of subject-verb inversion and apply it in contexts where it is not appropriate. Examples of common errors in the use of indirect questions: *I can't remember when did I meet him. *I don't know how did they got there. •1 asked him why didn't he come to school yesterday. *Our teacher didn't tell us when was the final exam.
English Persian + Level 3- Reinterpretation An item that exists in the native language is given a new shape or distribution in the TL. The Persian learner of English, for example, must learn a new allophone for the phoneme /1/. That is, the Persian Ill Chapter 1 - Fundamental Issues in Contrastive Analysis 19 is mainly a clear Ill; whereas, this phoneme may be clear or dark in English depending on the phonological environment. Level 4- Overdifferentiation An entirely new item in the target language, bearing little or no similarity to the native language item, must be learned.