By John C. Mitchell
For undergraduate and starting graduate scholars, this textbook explains and examines the important strategies utilized in glossy programming languages, resembling features, kinds, reminiscence administration, and keep watch over. The publication is exclusive in its finished presentation and comparability of significant object-oriented programming languages. Separate chapters learn the historical past of items, Simula and Smalltalk, and the popular languages C++ and Java. the writer offers foundational subject matters, equivalent to lambda calculus and denotational semantics, in an easy-to-read, casual variety, targeting the most insights supplied through those theories. complex themes contain concurrency, concurrent object-oriented programming, software parts, and inter-language interoperability. A bankruptcy on common sense programming illustrates the significance of specialised programming equipment for sure types of difficulties. This e-book will provide the reader a greater realizing of the problems and tradeoffs that come up in programming language layout, and a greater appreciation of the benefits and pitfalls of the programming languages they use.
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Additional resources for Concepts in Programming Languages
1 Statements and Expressions Just as virtually all natural languages have certain basic parts of speech, such as nouns, verbs, and adjectives, there are programming language parts of speech that occur in most languages. The most basic programming language parts of speech are expressions, statements, and declarations. These may be summarized as follows: 25 26 Lisp: Functions, Recursion, and Lists Expression: a syntactic entity that may be evaluated to determine its value. In some cases, evaluation may not terminate, in which case the expression has no value.
2 Conditional Expressions in Lisp The semantics of the Lisp conditional expression (cond ( p1 e1 ) . . ( pn en )) is explained in the text. This expression does not have a value if p1 , . . , pk are false and pk+1 does not have a value, regardless of the values of pk+2 , . . , pn . Imagine you are an MIT student in 1958 and you and McCarthy are considering alternative interpretations for conditionals in Lisp: (a) Suppose McCarthy suggests that the value of (cond ( p1 e1 ) . . ( pn en )) should be Exercises the value of ek if pk is true and if, for every i < k, the value of expression pi is either false or undeﬁned.
The name comes from the fact that the algorithm ﬁrst marks all of the locations reachable from the program, then “sweeps” up all the unmarked locations as garbage. This algorithm assumes that we can tell which bit sequences in memory are pointers and which are atoms, and it also assumes that there is a tag bit in each location that can be switched to 0 or 1 without destroying the data in that location. Mark-and-Sweep Garbage Collection 1. Set all tag bits to 0. 2. Start from each location used directly in the program.