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By Henry Levy, Richard Eckhouse

Takes a special platforms method of programming and structure of the VAX

utilizing the VAX as a close instance, the 1st 1/2 this booklet deals a whole direction in meeting language programming. the second one describes higher-level structures concerns in desktop structure. Highlights contain the VAX assembler and debugger, different glossy architectures corresponding to RISCs, multiprocessing and parallel computing, microprogramming, caches and translation buffers, and an appendix at the Berkeley UNIX assembler.

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Branch Greater Than BGTR X Branch if the result was greater than zero. Branch Greater Than or Equal BGEQ X Branch if the result was greater than or equal to zero. Jump JMP X Branch unconditionally to location X. 40 The Program Assembler and Debugger To understand how instructions operate, examine a simple longword Add instruction that sums two 32-bit longword integers in memory. We can specify the locations of the operands to be added by their addresses. For instance, the instruction ADDL 2 0 0 , 2 0 4 causes the longword stored at location 200 to be added to the longword stored at location 204.

They are not assignments in the programming language sense; they are constant declarations. They do not generate machine instructions and they are not executed by the machine; constant assignments simply equate symbolic names to assembly-time constant values. Symbols that are defined as labels (by following them with a :) or by direct assignment (by equating them with a value through the = sign) are 44 The Program Assembler and Debugger local to the program in which they are denned. To specify a symbol that can be referenced globally (that is, outside of the current program), the notations :: and = = are used.

It generates a symbol table that contains the values of all user-defined labels and symbols. 2. It maintains a location counter that tells where the next instruction or data item will be placed in memory. 3. It translates the symbolic instruction names and operand specifiers into binary machine code (called the object program). 4. It produces a listing for the programmer, showing the instructions and data and how they are translated and assigned to unique memory locations. To understand how an assembler works, we next look at the mechanisms it utilizes in performing the translation process.

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