Download Clinical MR Imaging: A Practical Approach by W. Nitz (auth.), Priv. Doz. Dr. Peter Reimer, Prof. Dr. Paul PDF

By W. Nitz (auth.), Priv. Doz. Dr. Peter Reimer, Prof. Dr. Paul M. Parizel, Dr. Falko-A. Stichnoth (eds.)

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Since this effect is stable over time and fixed in location, it will be refocused in SE imaging - except for a nonlinear behavior of the resonance frequency during the frequency encoding period. For GRE imaging, there is usually a dramatic signal void due to the rapid dephasing and a distorted geometry at locations where there is still some signal left, but being assigned to the wrong location since the Fourier transformation assumes a linear distribution of phases and frequencies. 1 Flow and Motion If the flow is not too fast and not too turbulent, it might help to select a sequence that has GMR.

At this point, it seems that the patient rather than the progress in hardware development is the limiting factor in fast imaging. Theoretically, the gradients could switch fast and high enough to cause nerve stimulation and muscle contraction within the patient. Practically, the gradient systems have safety monitors in order to prevent this situation. More impressive progress has been made with the introduction of circular polarized coils and phased-array technology. Circular polarization takes into account that the excitation as well as the reception is not limited to one dimension, but can be extended to two dimensions in order to reduce the SAR during excitation and improve the SNR during reception.

The data are collected along a T2* relaxation curve. The effective echo time is the time at which the low spatial frequencies are acquired. Gp, phase-encoding gradient; GR, readout gradient; GS, slice-selection gradient; RF, radiofrequency RF G Data Acqui Fig. 41. The spiral echo-planar-imaging sequence. The readout gradient as well as the phase-encoding gradient oscillate with an increasing amplitude. This causes a data trajectory that "spirals" through k-space, starting in the center of k-space with the acquisition of low spatial frequencies.

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