By Joseph Zubin (auth.), Benjamin B. Wolman Ph.D. (eds.)
For centuries the "treatment" of mentally disturbed participants used to be very simple. They have been accused of collusion with evil spirits, hunted, and persecuted. The final "witch" was once killed as past due as 1782 in Switzerland. Mentally disturbed humans didn't fare far better even if the witchhunting days have been long gone. John Christian Reil gave the next description of psychological pa tients on the crossroads of the 15th and 16th centuries: We incarcerate those depressing creatures as though they have been criminals in deserted jails, just about the lairs of owls in barren canyons past the town gates, or in damp dungeons of prisons, the place by no means a pitying glance of a humanitarian penetrates; and we allow them to, in chains, rot of their personal excrement. Their fetters have eaten off the flesh in their bones, and their emaciated light faces glance with a bit of luck towards the graves with a purpose to finish their distress and canopy up our shamefulness. (1803) the good reforms brought through Philippe Pinel at Bicetre in 1793 augured the start of a brand new method. Pinel ascribed the "sick role," and known as for compas sion and aid. One doesn't want to know a lot approximately these he desires to harm, yet one needs to be aware of much on the way to support. Pinel's reform was once by means of a speedy enhance ment in study of explanations, indicators, and treatments of psychological problems. There are major necessities for making plans a therapy strategy.
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For hundreds of years the "treatment" of mentally disturbed participants used to be very simple. They have been accused of collusion with evil spirits, hunted, and persecuted. The final "witch" was once killed as overdue as 1782 in Switzerland. Mentally disturbed humans didn't fare far better even if the witchhunting days have been long gone.
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Clinical practice needs descriptive and easily ascertainable concepts and models. Clinicians work with people, and such terms as "weak ego," "libido," and "repression" are not empirical terms and they fail to describe what patients think, feel, and do. Quite naturally, clinicians seek terms related to what they can see. The St. , 1974). The work of Eysenck (1961), Kanfer and Saslow (1969), and Ferster (1966) follows a similar line, and the DSM III is coated in terms of observable data (Pinsker & Spitzer, 1977; Spitzer, Endicott, & Robins, 1975).
Therapeutic Considerations The study of mental or behavioral disorders (I am using these two terms interchangeably) is an empirical science. Like all other empirical sciences, psychopathology describes factual data and puts them into classes or categories. There are no other rules for this generalization procedure except formal-logical principles (Nagel, 1961). However, the empirical psychopathological science serves as a basis for the applied sciences which deal with the treatment of mental disorders.
Goldstein et al. (1968) discovered that most reactive schizophrenics develop paranoid symptoms while process schizophrenics have a 50:50 chance of becoming paranoid. Prognostic studies conducted by Hunt (1951) at the Great Lakes Naval Training Center showed that psychiatric interviews had some predictive validity, but they failed in predicting successful behavior of psychiatrically healthy men. In other 21 CLASSIFICA nON AND DIAGNOSIS OF MENTAL DISORDERS 22 BENJAMIN B. WOLMAN words, whenever psychiatrists dealt with clearly disturbed individuals, their diagnosis had a considerable prognostic value, but in cases of mild difficulties their diagnosis led to no significant prognostically valid results.