By Steven Dymarkowski MD, PhD, Hilde Bosmans PhD (auth.), Jan Bogaert MD, PhD, Steven Dymarkowski MD, PhD, Andrew M. Taylor MD, MRCP, FRCR (eds.)
MRI has turn into the popular noninvasive imaging modality for the guts and nice vessels. The monstrous technological development accomplished lately has supplied the person with state-of-the-art MRI platforms, yet their optimum use should be restricted via limited information of the capability sufferer gain and the need for educating. This largely illustrated quantity, has been particularly compiled to fulfill those wishes. crucial theoretical history info is equipped, and imaging acquisition and strength pitfalls are thought of intimately. most significantly, established instructions are supplied at the interpretation of scientific information within the wide variety of cardiac pathology that may be encountered. all through, the emphasis is at the implementation of cardiac MRI in medical practice.
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Quantification of the tissue perfusion using these techniques is difficult for the same reasons as in the case of T1-weighted measurements. 4 Myocardial Viability Assessment It has been known for many years that regions of acute and chronic myocardial necrosis such as myocardial infarction exhibit higher signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images following administration of extracellular contrast agents (Kim et al. 2001; Sandstede 2003). In the chronic patient populations, this technique has been shown to have a close agreement with FDG positron-emission tomogra- S.
Another, more “MRI-discernible” body constituent is fat, which is chemically composed of fatty acids such as stearic, palmitic, and oleic acids, covalently bound in various proportions with glyceryl, all are enriched with 1H. The imaging signals in the clinically applied MRI at present stem from the abundant 1H in the human body, which is inherent in magnetic property due to its single positively charged proton. A similar property is also found in other less abundantly occurring isotopic nuclei such as 13C, 19F, 23Na, and 31P, with only odd numbers of protons, but not in 12C, 14N, and 16O, with even numbers of protons and neutrons.
2002). Both 2D and 3D sequences for CE-IR MRI exist. The definite advantage of 3D sequences is the ability to cover the entire ventricle in a single breath-hold period. Nevertheless, to achieve a 3D acquisition in a single breath-hold, the echo train length has to be quite long, which can lead to motion blurring in patients with higher heart rates (Kuhl et al. 2004). This functionality will be further elaborated in Sect. 4 and in Chap. 8. 1 Cardiac Morphology Breath-hold prospective-triggered TSE images with dark-blood pulses provide excellent delineation of cardiac anatomy with minimal respiratory artifacts.