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By Bancroft W. D.

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Extra resources for Claude Bernard's Theory of Narcosis

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Mind -Stuff Theory. This theory comesin two slightly different versions, both of which are intended as challenges to Cartesian dualism. The central contention of both versions is that the mind as a whole is the sum of its parts. According to James, mind -stuff theory straightforward " attempts to explain the constitution of higher mental" states by viewing them as identical with lower onessummed together. 33One version of the mind -stuff theory says that CML is identical to the sum of physical particles comprising our brains.

Consider the 6 following well -known experiment by JamesLackner and Merrill Garrett. Subjects were instructed to attend to just one channel in a set of earphones . In the attended channel subjectsheard the ambiguous sentence, " " The officer put out the lantern to signal the attack. In the unattended channel the first group heard sentences which , if understood, would heard in the interpretation of the sentence provide an unambiguous " " attended channel ( He extinguished the lantern ), while the second sentences(" The Red Sox are playing adouble group heard irrelevant " .

We hear sounds as significant . " 24The selectivenature of CML helps securetwo important philosophical points, one epistemological, the other ethical. First, the acknowledgment that CML is selective and interested requires the rejection of all naive brands of traditional empiricist epistemology, especially as they are embodied in the attempts of some psychologists to apply a reflex arc model to higher cognitive processes. In particular , any model that depicts the typical psychological causal chain as proceeding unidirectionally from senseimpression to cognition to volition must be rejected.

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