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By Jon C. Goodman

Aviation contributes a modest yet turning out to be percentage of overall U.S. emissions, and those emissions give a contribution to adversarial healthiness and environmental results. airplane and airport operations, together with these of carrier and passenger cars, emit ozone and different ingredients that give a contribution to neighborhood pollution, in addition to carbon dioxide and different greenhouse gases that give a contribution to weather swap. EPA estimates that aviation emissions account for under 1 percentage of neighborhood pollution nation-wide and approximately 2.7 percentage of U.S. greenhouse gasoline emissions, yet those emissions are anticipated to develop as air site visitors raises.

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It is the correction from observed to static temperatures using the “recovery temperature” equation that is most uncertain, as the correction involves quadratic terms for air speed that rely on highly accurate measurements of static and dynamic pressure. Consequently, accurate knowledge of the air flow around the aircraft surface where temperature probes are mounted is critical in order to determine recovery temperature to better than 1 oC. One issue that has been raised when different temperature measurements from the WB57F aircraft have been compared is that placement of inlets can have profound effects on water vapor measurements in clouds (or at RHi near 100%) due to possible inertial enhancement of particulate water.

IV. Water Vapor and Supersaturation H2O abundances in the UT/LS are controlled by a combination of transport processes. , waves, convection) processes are important [IPCC 1999; SPARC 2000]. , CH4 oxidation) and microphysics also play roles. Transport phenomena are key elements in UT water distribution; these include such occurrences as horizontal transport from the tropics to sub-tropics and midlatitudes and vertical motions associated with mesoscale convection, midlatitude cyclones and downward transport from the stratosphere.

Such measurements in the upper troposphere have had a very low priority on previous missions, except for the 1998 WB-57F Aerosol Mission (WAM) and the 2000 SOLVE campaign, Aviation-Climate Change Research Initiative… 35 results of which have shown that active forms of chlorine are more prevalent than was believed previously, provided that ample aerosol surface area abundances (> 3 ѓЭm cm-3) are available. , chemical ionization mass spectrometry - CIMS). In either case, there will be modest costs (see below) associated with the laboratory efforts required to optimize the existing stratospheric instruments for use in the UT/LS or those required to develop new calibrations and to develop a heritage of reliable observations, in the case of a new measurement technique, such as CIMS.

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