By Jack C. Richards
This widely-used booklet provides a transparent description and research of the key ways and techniques utilized in moment and overseas language educating. equipment and techniques coated contain: grammar translation, the direct process, situational language instructing, the silent method, overall actual reaction, the usual technique and suggestopedia.
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Extra info for Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: A Description and Analysis
An attempt is made to minimize the possibilities for making mistakes both in speaking and writing by using a tightly structured approach to the presentation of new lan guage items. At more advanced levels, mo re complex reading an d writing tasks ma y be introduced. Types of learning and teaching activities Dia logues and drills form the basis of audiolingual classroom practices. I)i:l logues provi de the means of contextual izin g key structures and ilI" strate situatio ns in which structures might be used as well as some r ilitural aspects of th e target language.
Acqu isition refers to the unconscious development of the ta rget language system as a result of using the language for real commun ication. Learn ing is the consciolls representation of grammatical knowledge that has resulted from instruction, and it cannot lead to acqu isition. It is t he acq ui red system that we call upo n to create utterances during spontaneous language use. T he learned system can serve only as a mo ni tor of the o utput of the acq ui red system. Krashen and other second langu age acquisition theorists typically stress that language learning comes about thro ugh using language communi catively, rather than through practicing language sk ill s.
Neither Brumfit and Johnson (1979 ) nor Littlewood (1981 ), for example, offers any discussion of learning theory. Elements of an underlying learning theory can be discerned in some CLT practices, however. One such element might be descri bed as the communication principle: Activities that involve real communication promote learning. A second element is the task principle: Activities in which language is used for carryi ng out meaningful tasks promote learni ng Uoh nson 1982). A third element is th e meaningfulness pri nciple: Language that is meaningful to the lea rner s upports the learning process.