Download Am As in Ham (Word Families Set 1) by Mary Elizabeth Salzmann PDF

By Mary Elizabeth Salzmann

Introduces, briefly textual content and illustrations, using the letter mixture "am" in such phrases as "ham," "clam," "jam," and "dam."

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Extra resources for Am As in Ham (Word Families Set 1)

Sample text

When Ottoman Christians informally spoke of ‘Turks’, they had in mind ‘Muslims’. ‘Turk’, in turn, had the connotation of Muslims of several sorts – Albanian, Kurdish, and Turkish (but not Arabic) Muslims. 87 Similarly, the Ottomans used the generic term ‘non-Muslim’ for all non-Muslims; for them ‘Armenian’ or ‘Jew’ did not have the connotation of an ethnic identity. The usage of the term ‘millet’ was not dissimilar; each of the millets consisted of several ethnic-linguistic groups. 89 In the Ottoman Empire language, too, was not a marker of ethnicity; whether or not one spoke a particular language did not determine one’s identity.

The goal was that of promoting the civic loyalty of all subjects to the Ottoman state; it was not one of molding all elements into a given ethnic or religious entity. 164 During the rest of the nineteenth century, the Ottomans made efforts to act in an egalitarian manner to all their subjects. They now distinguished their subjects from one another as Armenian element (unsur), Greek element, and Turkish element, the members of all these elements (anasır) being ‘an Ottoman (Osmanlı)’ in a civic sense, rather than as millets the members of which subcribed to different faiths.

101 Yesevism also contributed to the establishment of the Bektashi religious order in the Ottoman Empire, which established itself in the Janissaries, the elite core of the Ottoman army. The Janissaries were essentially made up of boys recruited in the conquered Christian realms of the Empire and trained as soldiers. 102 As a consequence, the members of the Janissary corps were inclined towards the popular (mystical) forms of Islam rather than the Sunniorthodox (doctrinaire) forms. 103 For Bektashism, too, looked tolerantly at all religions and sects; it attracted even Christians to its fold.

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