By Wilhelm H Westphal

This publication is a translation of the sixth to eighth version of the author's Kleines Lehrbuch der Physik. The circle of readers to which it hopes to allure and the author's goal in writing it were set out within the Preface to the 1st German version, released in 1948. the current e-book regularly follows the rules of the idea of amounts, the beginnings of which date again to James C. Maxwell. which means in all equations during this e-book the symbols always stand for actual amounts and never for the numerical values of amounts. merely then are the equations gene rally legitimate and self sustaining of the alternative of devices utilized in their assessment. The devices used are consistently the "metric" devices that have been gaining floor more and more additionally within the English-speaking international locations. A conversion desk for the various extra vital Anglo-American devices is given on web page XIV. i need to checklist my honest gratitude to Mr. Ewald Osers for his painsĀ taking paintings in making this translation and to Mr. P. C. Banbury, Ph. D., of the dept of Physics, college of analyzing, England, either for the recommendation he has given hirn all through and for devising the issues especially for this version.

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**Example text**

That is why potential energy can have negative values whereas kinetic energy mv2 /2 must, of course, always be positive. According to the energy principle no machine can perform more work than the amount of energy which is being fed into it or which - as in the case of a wound clock - has been stored up in it by means of such work as the winding of aspring, the raising of a weight, ete. A machine which performs work from nothing, a perpetuum mobile, is impossible under any circumstances. (See Westphal, Physics for You and Me, George G.

And so long as several forces acting upon a body can be reduced without remainder to a single resultant force, the same holds good. a ro Fig. 32. Couples The only case when such a reduction to a single force (Section 15) is impossible is that of two equal anti-parallel forces ~ and -~, known as a couple (Fig. 32a). e. an angular acceleration. This is obvious enough. We can impart an accelerated rotation to a freely movable body by taking hold of it at two different points and applying to it two equal anti-parallel forces.

Let the speed of the point mass along its circular path be v = rw. 1) F=ma=mr(w-wo)/t. 1) where maz = 1 is the moment of inertia of the point mass about its axis of rotation. The term N = F r is called the torque or the moment of the couple; (w - wo)/t, according to Section 9, is the angular acceleration of the point mass. We have therefore w-w Torque = Moment of inertia x Angular acceleration, N = 1 ___0 . 2) t This equation has general validity, also for all extensive bodies. It is entirely analogous to the equation F=ma=m(v-vo)/t.