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By David Reed Greenwood; G L Kingsbury; J G Cleland; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development

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3) is the amount of ionization produced in air by photons. M. g. counts per minute), regardless of the ionization produced by each one. M. counter be used to measure exposure in coulombs/kg or Roentgen units? I. unit of charge, defined as that charge transported per second by an electrical current of 1 ampere). g. Clkg'h or mRlh). However, the ionization produced by a photon is not constant, but depends to some extent on the energy of the photon. M. tube ("energycompensated tube�). 5 MeV, which is considered acceptable for radiation safety purposes.

The plaque has a serial number printed on it, and the same serial number is punched out as holes in the metal (BCD computer-readable code). The plaque fits (one way only) into a plastic tray having circular cut-outs to permit unimpeded irradiation of the TLD chips, and the tray slides into an outer plastic case and locks in position. A transparent window allows a view of the plaque number when the badge is sealed. There are two sets of radiation windows, front and back, corresponding to the locations of the two TLD chips.

4 BACKGROUND RADIATION Cosmic radiation, natural radioactivity in the earth and building materials, as well as sources of unnatural radiation such as wandering injected patients, all constitute unwanted "background radiation", which can interfere with a measurement. The two common methods of dealing with this are: 1. shield the detector, and 2. measure the background separately with the source removed and subtract it from the results of the measurement. The mean or average count rate is 100 cpm, but any single count might yield a quite different result.

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